Education in India today is nothing like it was in Pre-Independence and Post-Independence Era. Education System in India today went through a lot of changes before it emerged in its present form. Present education system in India is also guided by different objectives and goals as compared to earlier time. Present system of education in India, however is based around the policies of yesteryears. After independence, it was on 29th August 1947, that a Department of Education under the Ministry of Human Resource Development was set up. At that time the mission was the quantitative spread of education facilities. After, 1960’s the efforts were more focussed to provide qualitative education facilities. The National Policy on Education was formulated in 1968. It was formulated to promote education amongst India’s people. During 1987-88, it was Operation Blackboard which aimed to improve primary education by providing at least 2 rooms, 2 teachers and essential teaching aids like blackboard, chalk, duster etc. In 1994, District Primary Education Program (DPEP) was launched. It focussed on universalization of primary education which made primary education accessible to each and every child of school going age; once a child was enrolled in school he/ she was to be retained there.
In 2001, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) was launched. It is a Government of India flagship programme for achieving Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) in a time bound manner. It also lays emphasis on girl education and education of Schedule Caste (SC) and Schedule Tribe (ST) children and children with special needs. The Constitution (Eighty- sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution of India to provide free and compulsory education of all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the consequential legislation envisaged under Article 21-A, means that every child has a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.